The history of perfume in Grasse, France, is quite interesting. Grasse, a picturesque town nestled in the French Riviera not far away from Cannes, has long been hailed as the world’s perfume capital, where the production of fragrances in the old days was elevated to an exquisite form of craftsmanship. The town’s rich history in perfume-making dates back centuries and has left an indelible mark on the world of scent. However, let’s not forget that India has a far deeper background in perfume making!
Grasse’s association with perfume traces its roots to the 16th century when the leather tanning industry flourished in the little town. Somehow it became fashion to aromatize leather gloves. The people from the upper class craved smelling leather gloves and Grasse became a very important manufacturer of aroma oils to put fragrance onto the leather goods. This practice eventually evolved into the art of fine fragrance and a new industry was born in the little town.
One of the pivotal moments in Grasse’s perfume history was the introduction of the May rose (Rosa centifolia) and jasmine to the region. These delicate flowers thrive in Grasse’s unique climate, characterized by a mild Mediterranean climate and the well-drained soil of the hillsides. The cultivation of these flowers allowed for the production of exquisite floral essences, which became the cornerstone of Grasse’s perfume industry. Also important was the production of lavender and mimosa. Today, only very few plants are still cultivated, as the plantations have shifted to Bulgaria or Turkey and many other countries.
In the 17th and 18th centuries, Grasse’s reputation as a perfume hub grew steadily, it was by far the most important place for perfumery in Europe. The demand for high-quality fragrances surged, leading to the establishment of perfumeries and workshops. These workshops employed skilled artisans known as “noses” or perfumers, who meticulously blended and refined scents.
The connection to Paris in Grasse’s perfume history is closely tied to Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon recognized the significance of Grasse’s perfume industry and wanted to bolster it to enhance France’s economy. He encouraged the cultivation of flowers for fragrance, leading to the establishment of flower fields around Grasse. The aromatic blossoms were transported to Paris to create luxury perfumes favored by the French elite.
The 19th century witnessed further innovation in Grasse’s perfume industry, marked by the discovery of solvent extraction techniques. This breakthrough allowed for the extraction of fragrant oils from delicate flowers without damaging their essence. Perfumers were now able to create more intricate and nuanced fragrances, solidifying Grasse’s status as a global leader in the perfume world. However, today the know-how of extraction has spread across the world.
Today, Grasse is only a tourist spot with old companies and perfume museums. Tourists can delve into the history and artistry of perfume-making. The connection to Paris continues through luxury brands and perfume houses that source their essential oils and ingredients from Grasse to create their signature scents. The only important role Grasse has today is the trade of natural ingredients. There are a multitude of companies in the small town that trade the best perfume ingredients in the world. In Europe, Grasse remains the most important trading hub for natural ingredients. But the cultivation has moved abroad, as well as the perfumers, which are working in New York, Paris, London or Shanghai.